Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Redesign of a Toy Revolver Gun - Assignment Example This assignment aims at redesigning a physical product for assembly and would put forward DFMA as it occurs in real engineering world. The physical product selected for this assignment is toy revolver gun which inherited this name because of its revolving cylinder consisting of multiple chambers .This physical product has various part and they can be describes as below; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cover of the gun. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Base of the gun. Ã¢â¬ ¢ (Hummer): to strikes the primer to cause ignition. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ejector Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ejector button Ã¢â¬ ¢ (Left and right grip): to handle of the handgun. Ã¢â¬ ¢ (Trigger): small lever that is squeezed to start firing. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Revolver cylinder Ã¢â¬ ¢ (Muzzle): the end of the barrel (bullet or shot exist). Ã¢â¬ ¢ 3 screws Ã¢â¬ ¢ Compression spring Ã¢â¬ ¢ 2 Torsion spring As a part of redesigning, a table analysis will be done as well the picture of the physical product will be projected.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Australian Environmental History - Essay Example Forest history and heritage studies have received considerable attention in both the academic and public domains. Relationship between European or Western cultures influenced much in the environmental management and way of life. 'The visions of environment combined with the balance of power relationship within colonial society are reflected in the development of a public policy framework for resource user and environmental management from the mid 19th century' (Dover 1994, p. 5-78). The exploitative legislation and protective legislation are which involves the land grants for the settlers and the rights of distribution of mineral and water. With these two paradigms, political struggle is present which needs some clarifications. Exploitative legislation focuses more on the resource development and some specific developmental projects which take advantage of the current environmental status to serve the end users and meets their needs. Whilst, protective legislation is in contrast to the exploitative legislation which embodies the knowledge of conservation planning and protecting the general envi ronmental state for maintenance and storing up what is natural and upkeep the balance in nature. 1.) Exploitative Pioneering. The utilisation of Australian nature for the purpose of establishing financially viable fundamentals to its colony and endow with a return on venture from Britain and assemble the power of empire.
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Smoking Cessation Therapy during Pregnancy - Article Example The contemporary NRT during pregnancy mitigates the delivery of toxins despite the fact that nicotine intake is profound during pregnancy. Such therapy is effective as it gradually eliminates withdrawal symptoms; hence, aids in the smoking cessation process (Cressman, et al., 1). The study indicates that behavioral counseling is suitable for pregnant women smoking less than five cigarettes per day because their nicotine intake is high (Cressman, et al., 2). Bupropion and Varenicline are among the contemporary NRT measures. The research conducted by Cressman, et al., convincingly argues that NRT enhances smoking cessation among pregnant women. It is prudent to concur with the research. However, the research fails to end the ambiguity inherent in the fact that the external environment that the women are exposed to has a significant influence on the process. As such, cessation may not be entirely attributed to NRT. The external environment presents psychological stressors that may contradict with the smoking cessation process. In addition, the gestation period lasts for nine months among human beings. Therefore, the period of subjecting the pregnant women to NRT is undefined. The research fails to indicate the negative effects of NRT on pregnancy. Bupropion and Varenicline are foreign to the body and may have negative effects on the pregnancy despite their efforts to mitigate smoking among the women. The research topic Ã¢â¬Å"smoking cessation therapy during pregnancyÃ¢â¬ encompasses the study of life. With much interest focused towards such a study, the article acts as a stepping stone towards providing insight into the onset of life as required in Biology. The conventional functions of the body during pregnancy are quite delicate, and women ought to create an environment conducive to the development of the baby.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
SOURCE EVALUATION - Essay Example Therefore, for football games to be peaceful, it is important that the origin of hooliganism be understood. It is also, essential to find out what causes unrest among football suppoters and the issue be addressed by the world football governing body; FIFA. According to Ramon (11), football hooliganism is a social problem that causes a lot of anxiety among people in different countries in Europe. The study of hooliganism is therefore a major step in addressing the vice. This book, provides the reader with the social approaches to this issue and their limitations. Ã¢â¬Å"Among sociological study of hooliganism, three quite clearly delineated approaches can be distinguished: the Marxist approaches by Ian Taylor and John Clarke; and (iii) the post modernist approaches by Giulanotti and Redhead.Ã¢â¬ The source, Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding human hooliganism: A comparison of six western European football clubsÃ¢â¬ is very relevant given the rising cases of hooliganism in the world. For example, on February 03, 2014 the mirror daily newspaper reported that police are looking for three football supporters who were alleged to have thrown coins into the field. In summary, this source is very important and relevant to any student or researcher, this is because it addresses an issue which has a very negative social impact and if not addressed properly; will affect the football industry, which is currently practiced by thousands of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The reproduction of the cats Essay Cats are prolific breeders. Females take just 6 to 9 months to reach sexual maturity; but it is not unheard of for female kittens as young as 4 months to become pregnant. Males mature a bit later but both sexes can breed before they are a year old. Although female can become pregnant at any time of the year, there are specific mating seasons when cats become sexually active. In northern Europe it is usual for domestic female cats to come into heat (estrus cycle) in January and then again in June. The estrus cycle is the period in the female reproduction cycle when mating is most likely to occur. A heat period lasts about 4 to 7 days if the cat is mated and longer otherwise. Female cats indicate their readiness to mate by calling for male company with a special type of yowl, which like the (highly vocal) mating itself has often disturbed the sleep of humans who live in the vicinity. One of the most interesting features of the reproductive process of cats is a phenomenon known as induced ovulation. The male cats penis has backward pointing spines which scratch the interior of its partner, and cause ovulation to occur. Because pregnancy will not take place without this stimulus, quite often the first cats to mate with a queen with not father any kittens. However, the super-fertility of cats means that once she gets started, the female is capable of having a number of partners, and bearing kittens from several fathers in the same litter. The mothers eggs are fertilized in the oviduct and arrive in the uterus 4-5 days after mating. Cats do not go about the process quietly, and to the unpracticed ear the process sounds remarkably like a prolonged and very vocal cat-fight. Pregnancy lasts between 56 and 71 days, with the average pregnancy taking 68 days. Litters are most commonly of 3-6 kittens, but a single litter may have as many as nine. The record was a litter 19 kittens; the mother being a Burmese/Siamese cross from Oxford shire in England. The kittens were born on the 7th of August. Unfortunately four of the kittens were stillborn. Lets meet at the milk bar A few days before she is due to give birth the pregnant female will become restless and will look for the best nest. This will normally be quiet, warm and in one of the darker parts of the house. This is where she will give birth. It is a good idea not to disturb her in her nesting place. Kittens are both blind and deaf when born but otherwise well developed. They are, for example, more responsive than newborn puppies. A newborn kitten has a very good sense of smell and she will soon select a teat to feed from and will suck at no other. A kitten will be ready to play at three weeks old and will be fully weaned by 8 weeks. The mother can come into heat as soon as four weeks after giving birth. If the kittens are pedigreed, the father is referred to as the sire and the technical term for the mother is the dam. As we said earlier cats are prolific breeders and can breed throughout their lifespan. Again dipping to a feline book of records we will find that the most prolific breeder ever recorded was a tabby from Texas, USA called Dusty. She produced 420 kittens, the last litter being in 1952. Although fertility may gradually decline over time, cats do not go through the menopause. Therefore there is no age after which a female cat can no longer become pregnant. Indeed the oldest cat to have a litter was Litty, who gave birth to two kittens in May 1987 when she was 30 years old. With this birthrate it is no wonder than left to itself the feline population will quickly run out of control. It has been estimated that in a 12-year lifespan, without human intervention, a single female cat could be responsible for as many as 3500 descendants. There are already too many cats born each year and sadly, many are destroyed. It is therefore important that the cats are neutered as early as possible. Neutered cats are much better pets and studies have also shown that females spayed before they are six months have a significantly reduced risk of mammary (breast) cancer. It is also the case that if male cats are spayed later, they may continue aggressive scent-marking (spraying with urine), out of sheer force of habit.
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Observational Cinema And Forms Of Ethnographic Filmmaking Film Studies Essay There are many film styles which one can adopt to make an ethnographic film and observational cinema is one of them. Observational cinema includes direct and vÃ ©ritÃ © cinema which developed back in the 1960s. David McDougall was the most enthusiastic critical person when it came to observational cinema and also the most skilled person which used this type of ethnographic filmmaking. There are various implications when it comes to new technologies that anthropologists are still struggling with them till today. If it wasnt for the new technologies anthropologists would find it difficult to sync sound enabled documentaries because they really needed to show interactions in informal settings. Since, it never was possible to do so because an anthropologist needed a studio dramatization with fundamental fictionalization. This shows that there was a shift from the public to the private and also from the general to the particular. In the past, the pre-sync sound documentaries depended on a third-person commentary. The comments were used to contextualize the footage, to deliver the message and to elaborate sophisticated arguments captured by the anthropologist filmmaker. Commentary by the filmmakers was becoming to be seen as an unnecessary obstacle. This happened because when the viewers are watching a documentary with the natives speaking in their own native language, the editor has to cut certain comments and the meaning of the scene tend to be lost. Previous ethnographic films tend to combine the voice of the filmmaker with the voice o the film and also that in turn with voices film-as-text and the subjects in the film (McDougall David, 1998, pg5). Observational films are the most acknowledged from authors of ethnographic films, which hold on the traces of filmmaking in a form of documentary. Moreover, McDougall, points out that the know-how of understanding and viewing these types of observational films, is a very passive one which it shows the scene moving before you can notice it. This shows that the filmmakers view is important and challenging which is usually heard only through a voice. The 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s observational cinema, have given a new start for a style that is based on interviews, intercuts with archival or actuality footage. McDougall during an interview in the Film Teaching and the State of Documentary had used the same harmony sound of the new technology which had lead the way for observational cinema, both the early technology and the new technology are different in their character. When it comes to documentaries which are based on interviews, one notices the earlier style of observational filmmaking, which was going to takeover. Usually, in a standard dialogue, people are usually encouraged to say what they want and do, so that they can reflect what they had really experienced after a phenomenon. On the other hand, observational filmmakers, such as ethnographers, focus more on the life o the natives and how they actually live it, more like participatory observation. The person, who is doing the film, has to be sure that the saying or doing are drifting apart together. Somehow, the phenomenologist forgets that one should reflect on the person living his life rather than interpreting it. If certain scene have been staged for the camera, therefore they are not exactly real, may have similarities to those who act in the real self, but the final result wont be real. Observational cinema is more likely to think about the natives to get on with their own life when they are being observed rather than interrupting from their daily life. This type of filmmaking didnt want people to speak about themselves or to narrate their experiences especially when it is in front of the camera. David and Judith MacDougall influenced the ethnographic filmmaking even though through the years from 1970s onwards it continued to develop. Their films such as the African and the Australian films shows are still popular even today. Before this development in filmmaking, ethnographers didnt use subtitles when it comes to their documentaries, but the MacDougalls have introduced the subtitles in the ethnographic filmmaking rather than being talked over from the voice of the anthropologist. Subtitles had an important influence because the use of subtitles showed that the Non-Westerners, had also their intellectual lives, not as the Westerners used to think. As they used to shoot, MacDougalls still tied the natives to their physical and psychological limited perspectives. The aim of the film ethnographer is to capture the details through camera or photography but the fact that people are influenced by the presence of the ethnographer is rather an implication, therefore the ethnographer should have an aesthetic precision (McDougall David, 1998, pg9). There are various observation documentary films which reveal the real life which belong to a certain importance to journalism. This happens because in every society there is a public and political orientation. Now I will be discussing the implications they encountered during their practices with their new techniques in areas where tradition anthropology is enquired. From the start, David and Judith had their own ideas. They wanted to show the outline of every stage of their practice. The MacDougalls also wanted to show the differences they adopted from that of Jean Rouch, who altered the process of ethnographic exploration into a mystical or shamanistic journey, seeks to subvert the very kind of intellectual reasoning (Grimshaw, Ann, 2009 pg 122). Without any uncertainty, David MacDougalls writing reflects the recent cinematic ethnography development which they tackle realities of every day life of a particular society. Ann Grimshaw calls this technique as the metaphysic (Grimshaw, Ann, 2009 pg 122).. The work of David and Judith MacDougall will remain popular for their new way of observing things. Grimshaw tackles an epistemological perspective, where she argues that when someone questions something about knowledge needs to answer the question to its depth. The MacDougalls works such as films and writings are marked by a drive for clarity (Grimshaw, Ann, 2009 pg 122). Various anthropologists have searched for new methods to make documentary filming so that they can study Western societies. All they had to do was that they had to seek for something that renders things in their natural state, so that the film could make it to a larger audience. The method was that the ethnographer places him self as a filmmaker and therefore he views a certain type of ritual. The advantage of this method is that the ethnographers divided their methodological lines and observed while they also found the time to interact with the agency involved. On the other hand, Rouchs followers which are usually English speaking found it difficult to interact with the people of that particular society, unless an interview. Anthropologists by time started to adopt this observational filmmaking approach. The difference between certain other methods and this approach is that other methods tell very little to the audience and everyone can deduct his or her own story from the pictures seen. Films such as observational cinema involve people which they seem to be the owners of the wealth and effort of human experience (McDougall David, 1998, pg129). As a sort of implication the participants was seen as the co-conspirator in the filmmaking for not leaving the filmmaker out from his / her own film. This shows that the filmmaker gives much importance to the natives of the country rather than interrupting him/her self. When an anthropologist starts his or her research first s/he has to interact and then be accepted as part of that group. But when it comes to an anthropologist using the filming method, this builds a wall between the anthropologist and the natives because the anthropologist finds it difficult for him/her to show him / her self with the natives while being filmed unless there is someone else filming. Filmmaking doesnt leave much room for energy because all the energy is drained out with the camera so that the anthropologist can have an excellent result. This may lead for the anthropologist to reduce his or her participation with that society and therefore it is difficult for an anthropologist to recall whatever s/he has captured if not participated. Ethnographers are more likely to study non-Western Societies, which are very delicate to tackle and to study. The weakness of this situation is that since these societies are very weak, the ethnographer when it comes to film making should make him/herself as the recording instrument of history, which the pressure is on the ethnographer to weigh down the efforts to pursue more specific lines of inquiry (McDougall David, 1998, pg130). The situation leads the ethnographer to impersonate. Even though we, as spectators, are viewing people through the finalized film, as if they do not maintain anything on us, it is still up to us to understand whatever they mean by the things or rituals they make. Our situation combines a sense of immediacy with an absolute separation (McDougall David, 1998, pg130). With this observational method, the filmmaker is more likely to understand the meaning through a film or a picture rather than by understanding the meaning of the ritual by involving him / hers elf into the setting. The filmmaker became more of an eye of the audience, frozen into their passivity unable to bridge the separation between themselves and their subject (McDougall David, 1998, pg131). Films rather than tackling the abstract are more enthusiastic to tackle the specific, is deemed to be incompetent of serious intellectual expression. There are more than enough ethnographic films around which contains a doubtful interpretation, with a justification as a conclusion. Finally, Evans Pritchard also made a critique to Malinowski, where he stated that the themes are more than a descriptive synthesis of events. It is not a theoretical integrationthere is consequently no real standard of relevance, since every thing has a time and space relationship in cultural reality to explain everything else and from what ever point one starts on spreads oneself over the same ground (McDougall David, 1998, pg131). What Pritchard wanted to say was that it takes more from a descriptive observation to understand a situation; it takes to involve one self to understand what the meaning behind every situation is.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Tomorrow City by Monica Hughes The plot of this book centres around two adolescents, David and Caro and an evil supercomputer which aspires to control the futuristic city of Thompsonville.Ã Dr. Henderson, Caro's Father creates the "perfect" computer designed to solve all of the problems of Thompsonville by gaining almost complete power of the city.Ã The computer then begins to make rash decisions of it's own. It decides that humans are incapable of making decisions of there own and soon devises a method of controlling the minds of everyone in the city. Ã Ã Ã Ã Only two young people, Caro and David, are not manipulated by the computer.Ã They band together and work out a strategy to disable the computer.Ã The two make a daring infiltration of the building that the computer is located and after a traumatic episode in which Caro is blinded, the computer is destroyed and the city is returned to it's previous state. Ã The theme of the book is to show that technology is not a perfect solution to the many problems faced by man.Ã By using a product of technology, the computer, and showing how it was supposed to be a perfect solution to the city's problems, yet it made a grave error in calculations, the author is saying that many problems faced by man cannot be solved by the use of technology. Ã Technology played a negative role in this book.Ã The computer, the major aspect of technology used in this book, used its capabilities to immorally rule the citizens and the city of Thompsonville.Ã The computer transmitted hypnotic signals through peoples T.V. sets and would use them to carry out it's will to ultimately control the city.Ã It then discarded anything or anyone who were useless to it's purpose including the elderly and the sick. One of the major arguments that the author uses to emphasize the theme is the significant malfunctioning of the computer.Ã It was designed to be flawless and solve the numerous problems of the city.Ã But, the computer's rationing is shown throughout the book to be poor. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The methods in which it goes about solving the city's problems